About This Blog

A copy of my content from SQLBlog.com plus occasional new content.
Showing posts with label Query Plans. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Query Plans. Show all posts

Thursday, 4 November 2010

Myth: SQL Server Caches a Serial Plan with every Parallel Plan

Myth: SQL Server Caches a Serial Plan with every Parallel Plan

Many people believe that whenever SQL Server creates an execution plan that uses parallelism, an alternative serial plan is also cached.

The idea seems to be that the execution engine then decides between the parallel and serial alternatives at runtime. I’ve seen this on forums, in blogs, and even in books.

In fairness, a lot of the official documentation is not as clear as it might be on the subject. In this post I will show that only a single (parallel) plan is cached. I will also show that SQL Server can execute a parallel plan on a single thread.

Thursday, 23 September 2010

A Tale of Two Index Hints

A Tale of Two Index Hints

If you look up Table Hints in the official documentation, you’ll find the following statements:

If a clustered index exists, INDEX(0) forces a clustered index scan and INDEX(1) forces a clustered index scan or seek.

If no clustered index exists, INDEX(0) forces a table scan and INDEX(1) is interpreted as an error.

The interesting thing there is that both hints can result in a scan. If that is the case, you might wonder if there is any effective difference between the two.

This blog entry explores that question, and highlights an optimizer quirk that can result in a much less efficient query plan when using INDEX(0). I’ll also cover some stuff about ordering guarantees.

Sunday, 22 August 2010

Row Goals and Grouping

Row Goals and Grouping

You might recall from Inside the Optimizer: Row Goals In Depth that query plans containing a row goal tend to favour nested loops or sort-free merge join over hashing.

This is because a hash join has to fully process its build input (to populate its hash table) before it can start probing for matches on its other input. Hash join therefore has a high start-up cost, balanced by a lower per-row cost once probing begins.

In this post, we will take a look at how row goals affect grouping operations.

Wednesday, 18 August 2010

Inside the Optimizer: Row Goals In Depth

Inside the Optimizer: Row Goals In Depth

Background

One of the core assumptions made by the SQL Server query optimizer cost model is that clients will eventually consume all the rows produced by a query.

This results in plans that favour the overall execution cost, though it may take longer to begin producing rows.

Wednesday, 11 August 2010

The Impact of Non-Updating Updates

The Impact of Non-Updating Updates

From time to time, I encounter a system design that always issues an UPDATE against the database after a user has finished working with a record — without checking to see if any of the data was in fact altered.

The prevailing wisdom seems to be “the database will sort it out”. This raises an interesting question: How smart is SQL Server in these circumstances?

In this post, I’ll look at a generalisation of this problem: What is the impact of updating a column to the value it already contains?

The specific questions I want to answer are:

  • Does this kind of UPDATE generate any log activity?
  • Do data pages get marked as dirty (and so eventually get written out to disk)?
  • Does SQL Server bother doing the update at all?

Thursday, 5 August 2010

Iterators, Query Plans, and Why They Run Backwards

Iterators, Query Plans, and Why They Run Backwards

Iterators

SQL Server uses an extensible architecture for query optimization and execution, using iterators as the basic building blocks.

Iterators are probably most familiar in their graphical showplan representation, where each icon represents a single iterator. They also show up in XML query plan output as RelOp nodes:

Each iterator performs a single simple function, such as applying a filtering condition, or performing an aggregation. It can represent a logical operation, a physical operation, or (most often) both.

Wednesday, 28 July 2010

Ranking Function Optimizer Transformations

Ranking Function Optimizer Transformations

In my last post I showed how SQL Server 2005 and later can use a Segment Spool to implement aggregate window functions and the NTILE ranking function.

The query optimizer is also smart enough to recognise that some queries are logically equivalent to a window function, even if they are written using different syntax.

Partitioning and the Common Subexpression Spool

Partitioning and the Common Subexpression Spool

SQL Server 2005 introduced the OVER clause to enable partitioning of rowsets before applying a window function. This post looks at how this feature may require a query plan containing a ‘common subexpression spool’. This query plan construction is required whenever an aggregate window function or the NTILE ranking window function is used.