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SQL Server internals information including my content from SQLBlog.com and SQLPerformance.com.

Thursday, 21 February 2013

Halloween Protection – The Complete Series

Halloween Protection – The Complete Series

I have written a four-part series on the Halloween Problem.

Some of you will never have heard about this issue. Those that have might associate it only with T-SQL UPDATE queries. In fact, the Halloween Problem affects execution plans for INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE and MERGE statements.

This is a topic I have been meaning to write about properly for years, ever since I read Craig Freedman’s 2008 blog post on the topic, which ended with the cryptic comment:

“…although I’ve used update statements for all of the examples in this post, some insert and delete statements also require Halloween protection, but I’ll save that topic for a future post.”

That future post never materialized, so I thought I would have a go. The four parts of the series are summarized and linked below, I hope you find the material interesting.

Wednesday, 20 February 2013

The Halloween Problem – Part 4

The Halloween Problem – Part 4

The Halloween Problem can have a number of important effects on execution plans. In this final part of the series, we look at the tricks the optimizer can employ to avoid the Halloween Problem when compiling plans for queries that add, change or delete data.

Monday, 18 February 2013

The Halloween Problem – Part 3

The Halloween Problem – Part 3

The MERGE statement (introduced in SQL Server 2008) allows us to perform a mixture of INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE operations using a single statement.

The Halloween Protection issues for MERGE are mostly a combination of the requirements of the individual operations, but there are some important differences and a couple of interesting optimizations that apply only to MERGE.

Friday, 15 February 2013

The Halloween Problem – Part 2

The Halloween Problem – Part 2

In the first part of this series, we saw how the Halloween Problem applies to UPDATE queries. To recap briefly, the problem was that an index used to locate records to update had its keys modified by the update operation itself (another good reason to use included columns in an index rather than extending the keys). The query optimizer introduced an Eager Table Spool operator to separate the reading and writing sides of the execution plan to avoid the problem. In this post, we will see how the same underlying issue can affect INSERT and DELETE statements.

Wednesday, 13 February 2013

The Halloween Problem – Part 1

The Halloween Problem – Part 1

Much has been written over the years about understanding and optimizing SELECT queries, but rather less about data modification. This series looks at an issue that is specific to INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE and MERGE queries – the Halloween Problem.

The phrase “Halloween Problem” was originally coined with reference to a SQL UPDATE query that was supposed to give a 10% raise to every employee who earned less than $25,000. The problem was that the query kept giving 10% raises until everyone earned at least $25,000.

We will see later on in this series that the underlying issue also applies to INSERT, DELETE and MERGE queries, but for this first entry, it will be helpful to examine the UPDATE problem in a bit of detail.

Wednesday, 6 February 2013

Incorrect Results with Indexed Views

Incorrect Results with Indexed Views

If you use MERGE, indexed views and foreign keys, your queries might return incorrect results. Microsoft have released a fix for incorrect results returned when querying an indexed view. The problem applies to:

  • SQL Server 2012
  • SQL Server 2008 R2
  • SQL Server 2008

The Knowledge Base article does not go into detail, or provide a reproduction script, but this blog post does.

Friday, 1 February 2013

A creative use of IGNORE_DUP_KEY

A creative use of IGNORE_DUP_KEY

Let’s say you have a big table with a clustered primary key, and an application that inserts batches of rows into it. The nature of the business is that the batch will inevitably sometimes contain rows that already exist in the table.

The default SQL Server INSERT behaviour for such a batch is to throw error 2627 (primary key violation), terminate the statement, roll back all the inserts (not just the rows that conflicted) and keep any active transaction open: