About This Blog

SQL Server internals information including my content from SQLBlog.com and SQLPerformance.com.

Tuesday, 19 October 2010

Sequence Tables

Sequence Tables

It is frequently useful to generate sequences of values within SQL Server, perhaps for use as surrogate keys. Using the IDENTITY property on a column is the easiest way to automatically generate such sequences:

CREATE TABLE dbo.SomeTable
(
    row_id integer IDENTITY PRIMARY KEY,
    [data] sql_variant NOT NULL,
);

Sometimes though, the database designer needs a more flexible scheme than is provided by the IDENTITY property. One alternative is to use a Sequence Table.

Thursday, 23 September 2010

A Tale of Two Index Hints

A Tale of Two Index Hints

If you look up Table Hints in the official documentation, you’ll find the following statements:

If a clustered index exists, INDEX(0) forces a clustered index scan and INDEX(1) forces a clustered index scan or seek.

If no clustered index exists, INDEX(0) forces a table scan and INDEX(1) is interpreted as an error.

The interesting thing there is that both hints can result in a scan. If that is the case, you might wonder if there is any effective difference between the two.

This blog entry explores that question, and highlights an optimizer quirk that can result in a much less efficient query plan when using INDEX(0). I’ll also cover some stuff about ordering guarantees.

Wednesday, 1 September 2010

Inside the Optimizer: Plan Costing

Inside the Optimizer: Plan Costing

A detailed look at costing, and more undocumented optimizer fun.

The SQL Server query optimizer generates a number of physical plan alternatives from a logical requirement expressed in T-SQL. If full cost-based optimization is required, a cost is assigned to each iterator in each alternative plan, and the plan with the lowest overall cost is ultimately selected for execution.

Friday, 27 August 2010

Sorting, Row Goals, and the TOP 100 Problem

Sorting, Row Goals, and the TOP 100 Problem

When you write a query to return the first few rows from a potential result set, you’ll often use the TOP clause.

To give a precise meaning to the TOP operation, it will normally be accompanied by an ORDER BY clause. Together, the TOP…ORDER BY construction can be used to precisely identify which top ‘n’ rows should be returned.

Sunday, 22 August 2010

Row Goals and Grouping

Row Goals and Grouping

You might recall from Inside the Optimizer: Row Goals In Depth that query plans containing a row goal tend to favour nested loops or sort-free merge join over hashing.

This is because a hash join has to fully process its build input (to populate its hash table) before it can start probing for matches on its other input. Hash join therefore has a high start-up cost, balanced by a lower per-row cost once probing begins.

In this post, we will take a look at how row goals affect grouping operations.

Wednesday, 18 August 2010

Inside the Optimizer: Row Goals In Depth

Inside the Optimizer: Row Goals In Depth

Background

One of the core assumptions made by the SQL Server query optimizer cost model is that clients will eventually consume all the rows produced by a query.

This results in plans that favour the overall execution cost, though it may take longer to begin producing rows.

Saturday, 14 August 2010

Viewing Another Session’s Temporary Table

Viewing Another Session’s Temporary Table

Is it possible to view the contents of a local temporary table, created on a different connection?

Say we run this code on connection 1:

CREATE TABLE #Private
(
    [data] nvarchar(30) NOT NULL
);
GO
INSERT #Private
(
    [data]
)
VALUES
(
    N'Only I can see this'
);

Is there a way to see the contents of the #Private table from connection 2?

It isn’t particularly easy, but a user with sysadmin permissions, a bit of internal knowledge (and some patience) can do it.

Wednesday, 11 August 2010

The Impact of Non-Updating Updates

The Impact of Non-Updating Updates

From time to time, I encounter a system design that always issues an UPDATE against the database after a user has finished working with a record — without checking to see if any of the data was in fact altered.

The prevailing wisdom seems to be “the database will sort it out”. This raises an interesting question: How smart is SQL Server in these circumstances?

In this post, I’ll look at a generalisation of this problem: What is the impact of updating a column to the value it already contains?

The specific questions I want to answer are:

  • Does this kind of UPDATE generate any log activity?
  • Do data pages get marked as dirty (and so eventually get written out to disk)?
  • Does SQL Server bother doing the update at all?

Thursday, 5 August 2010

Iterators, Query Plans, and Why They Run Backwards

Iterators, Query Plans, and Why They Run Backwards

Iterators

SQL Server uses an extensible architecture for query optimization and execution, using iterators as the basic building blocks.

Iterators are probably most familiar in their graphical showplan representation, where each icon represents a single iterator. They also show up in XML query plan output as RelOp nodes:

Each iterator performs a single simple function, such as applying a filtering condition, or performing an aggregation. It can represent a logical operation, a physical operation, or (most often) both.

Wednesday, 4 August 2010

An Interesting MERGE Bug

An Interesting MERGE Bug

Investigating an optimizer transformation that exposes a bug in SQL Server’s MERGE implementation.